№71. Cancer in young age
- S.A. Tjulandin, A.A. Tryakin, M.Ju. FedyaninDOI 10.31917/1802161
The germ cell tumors are the most common cancer in men aged 24–35 years and represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that frequently occurs in the gonads, mediastinum and retroperitoneum. Their cause has not been fully elucidated but differences in incidences suggest that combination of genetic, epigenetic and environment factors are involved. Testicular germ cell tumors are highly sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and therefore a curable disease in most of the patients. We present here our own treatment results of germ cell tumor patients. We also summarize the consensus on how to treat germ cell tumors and focus on late toxicity of treatment and quality of life for survivors.
Keywords: germ cell tumors, etiology, pathogenesis, prognostic factors.
- A.V. Petrovskyi, V.A. AmosovaDOI 10.31917/1802174
This paper presents contemporary scientific literature review of surgical features in breast cancer (BC) patients of young age. Despite significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment, during last decades, there is an increased morbidity and mortality of BC, especially in young age women, which is associated with the aggressiveness and heterogeneity of this type of tumours and their complex biological features. In this regard, BC remains a serious public health problem. A deeper understanding of BC in young patients will help in further optimizing and improving the effectiveness of treatment in these patients.
Keywords: breast cancer, young age, surgical treatment.
- S.Ya. Maximov, A.S. Khadzhimba, A.A. Ilin I.V. Sobolev, E.A. VishinskayaDOI 10.31917/1802185
In article described main localization of malignant neoplasms in women of reproductive age, trends of morbidity and mortality. World statistics presented. Evaluated effectiveness of surgical and therapeutic treatment of ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancers among women of young age. Indications and results of preserving treatment for the early stages cancers are analyzed. Paradigms of treatment planning for localized and disseminated forms of malignant tumors of the female reproductive system are widely assessed. Presented results of own clinical trials.
Keywords: ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, cervical cancer, reproductive age, morbidity, mortality, treatment
- N.M. VolkovDOI 10.31917/1802197
Cancer is typically considered to be the disease of older age. Although digestive tract carcinomas are rare entities in the young age, their incidence and mortality are growing in younger people less than 40 y.o. unlike other ages. In this paper epidemiology, clinical and biological characteristics of gastrointestinal tumors, in particular colorectal and gastric, arising in adolescents and young adults are discussed.
Keywords: digestive tract tumors, young age, hereditary cancer syndromes, incidence, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer.
- A.A. ParokonnayaDOI 10.31917/1802206
Cancer during pregnancy is rare: 1 case for 1000–3000 pregnancies. The most common malignant neoplasms complicating pregnancy are: breast cancer, cervical cancer, melanoma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Surgery for cancer is rationally planned during the second trimester of pregnancy. Chemotherapy can be performed from the 13–14 weeks. Studies have shown no developmental differences in children exposed to chemotherapy in utero compared with their non-exposed peers. Infertility after the applied methods of cancer treatment develops in 50–95% of patients. Gonads
(testicles/ovaries) can be temporarily or permanently damaged by chemo and radiation therapy. Men have the well-established option cryopreserving sperm for later use. For women, there are a number of strategies for preserving fertility: еmbryo cryopreservation, оocyte preservation, оvarian cryopreservation (tissue freezing), оvarian suppression, оvarian transposition
Keywords: cancer and pregnancy, cancer and reproduction, fertility, oncology, cryopreservation.
- M.B. BelogurovaDOI 10.31917/1802212
This article focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation and modern approaches to treatment «pediatric» tumors such as medulloblastoma, osteogenic sarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma which can occur in young adults.
Keywords: young adults, malignant tumors, medulloblastoma, osteogenic sarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma.